Images of the Universe

The Galaxy M66 in the Constellation Leo. M66 is a class Sb spiral and was discovered by P. Mechain in 1780. It has a magnitude of 9.7 and is bright enough to be observed with a 4 inch scope from a dark site M66 is about 8x3 arcminutes in size. In a low power telescopic field, the galaxies NGC3628 and M65 can be seen as a trio with M66. The heavy dust lanes can easily be seen in this image. M66 was imaged with a C14 @ f/3.8 on 3/27/00. This image was taken from Houston Texas with exposures of L=60 min., R=G=B=20 min

M88 in the Constellation Coma Bernices. M88 is an Sb spiral that is about 6 by 3 arcminutes in size and lies in the mist of the great Virgo-Coma galaxy cluster. At magnitude 10.5, it makes a fine view in amateur size telescopes under dark skies. This galaxy was discovered by Messier in the year 1781 although it was not until Lord Rosse viewed it that it's spiral form was determined. M88 is about 60,000 light years in diameter and is at a distance of 40 million light years. This image of M88 is a WCMY taken with a C14 and a ST6 CCD. It was taken from Houston, Texas on 04/17/1999; with exposure times of W=C=M=Y=20 minutes.

Irregular Galaxy NGC4449 in the Constellation Canes Venatici. This irregular galaxy has the distinction of appearing rectangular in shape. It is about 4 by 3 arcminutes in size and is magnitude 10.5. In this image star clusters can be seen embedded within the galaxy. This image was taken from Houston, Texas on 3/15/99 with a ST6 and C14 @ /11. W=40min, C=M=Y=25min.

The Edge on Galaxy NGC4216 in the Constellation Virgo. This galaxy is similar in apperance to M65 or M104 with their prominent dust lanes. It is a member of the Virgo cluster that contains several thousand galaxies. The Virgo cluster is about 40 million light years away and is the largest "close" cluster of galaxies. NGC4216 is joined by two other edge on galaxies at the eyepiece of a scope with a field of view of atleast 40 arcminutes. This galaxy is 7 by 1 arcminutes in size and is about magnitude 11. This image is a WCMY and was made from Houston, Texas on 3/14/99 with a ST6 and a C14 @ f/7. W=60min, C=M=Y=23min.

The Face On Spiral Galaxy M83 in the Contellation Hydra. M83 has well defined spiral arms with prominent dust lanes embedded between the spiral arms. M83 is 10 million light years away and has a luminosity of 5 billion suns and has a diameter of 30,000 light years. It is a member of a small cluster of galaxies which includes NGC5128, the radio galaxy. M83 is 10 arcminutes in size and magnitude 8. This image was made from Danciger Texas on 2/14/99 with a C8 @ f/6.3 and a ST6 CCD. This is a WCMY with C=M=Y=13 minutes. The W image was made from the CMY images.

The Galaxy NGC2683 in the Constellation Lyn. This galaxy is classified as a Sb and is seen nearly edge on. It is rather large with dimensions of 9 by 1.3 arcminutes. NGC2683 is rather bright for galaxy, at magnitude 10.6, and should be visible in a six inch scope from a dark sky site. This image was taken from Houston, Texas on 1/9/1999. It is a WCMY with W=45 min. and C=M=Y= 25 min. Taken with a C14 at f/7 with a ST6 CCD.

M104, Spiral galaxy in the constellation Virgo. The "Sombrero" galaxy's most notable feature is the pronounced equatorial dustlane. The sombrero is about 40 million light years from earth and is believed to be a member of the Virgo cluster. Its apparent diameter of 7 arcminutes is equivalent to a diameter of 82,000 light years. Long exposure images taken with large telescopes reveal a large population of globular clusters surrounding it's equatorial bulge. This image was made by combining a RGB image by Al Kelly taken with a C8 and a monochrome image taken by Ed Grafton and a C14. The C8 RGB by Al Kelly was 4 minutes R, 8 minutes G, and 14 minutes B with a CB245 CCD. The C14 monochrome image was 40 minutes with a C14 @ f/7 and a ST6 CCD.

Very Remote Galactic Cluster Abell2151 in the constellation Hercules. Forty minute expousure with a C14 @ f/7 and a ST6 CCD.

NGC3395 and3396 in the constellation Leo Minor. These galaxies appear to be interacting with each other. Each is about 1 arc minute in size and are about magnitude 12.5. This is a WRGB of 27 minutes W, 15 minutes R, 30 minutes G and 45 minutes B. Taken with a C14 at f/7 and a ST6 CCD from Houston, Texas on 02/20/98.

NGC4214, irregular galaxy in the constellation Canes Venatici. This Magellanic-type irregular has bright star forming regions near it's center. The interstellar medium surrounding the center has been disrupted, with a clear seperation between stars, gas and dust. The structure of the galaxy and the detection of several peculiar and active features strongly suggest that violent processes (most likely several supernova explosions) are responsible for the disruption. NGC4214 is about 7 arcminutes in diameter and magnitude 10.5 This image was taken with a C14 @ f/7 and a ST6 CCD on 1/23/99 from Houston, Texas. This is a WCMY with exposures of W=C=M=Y=25 minutes.

M99, located in the constellation Coma Bernices. M99 is about 50 million light years from the Milky Way and shines brightly at magnitude 10.5, with an absolute diameter of 50,000 light years. It is about 5 arcminutes in diameter as seen from Earth and has a very well defined spiral pattern, type Sc. It's spiral arms are laden with star clouds and nebulous regions, making it one of the more beautiful galaxies. This was the second galaxy to be recognized by Lord Rosse as a spiral in 1848, after M51. This is a WCMY image of 25 min each of C, M, & Y. The W (monochrome) image is 40 minutes. Taken with a C14 @ f/7 and a ST6 CCD on 03/31/98 from Houston, Texas.

M65, Sb Spiral galaxy in the constellation Leo. Located about 35 million light years from earth this galaxy is large and bright. It's diameter is about 60,000 light years and from Earth appears about 10 arcminutes across. It forms a trio with two other large galaxies, M66 and NGC3628. This image was made by combining a MRGB image by Al Kelly taken with a C8 and a monochrome image taken by Ed Grafton and a C14. The C8 MRGB by Al Kelly was 13 minutes M, 5 minutes R, 12.5 minutes G and 17.5 minutes B on 02/06/98 with a CB245 CCD. The C14 monochrome image was 40 minutes with a C14 @ f/7 and a ST6 CCD.

M98...5/05/97...C14...@f/7...40min...Houston,Tx. Forty images from one minute integrations

NGC1055... Sb type spiral. This 12th magnitude spiral has a rather low surface brightness. It's spectacular dust lane and overall structure is somewhat similar to the better known sombrero galaxy. I had considered this galaxy out of reach in my light polluted skies but a 120 minute exposure pulled it out nicely from the 3.5 magnitude sky. C14 @ f/7 and a ST6 on 11/23/97.

NGC 3628 in the constellation Leo. This edge on Sb type galaxy has a very prominent dust lane that can easily be seen against the core of the galaxy. NGC3628 is 12 by 2 arcminutes in size and is magnitude 10.3. Located near by are the galaxies M65 and M66. This trio makes for a nice view through a richest field low power telescope from a dark site. This image was made from Danciger Texas on 2/13/99 with a C8 @ f/6.3 and a ST6 CCD. This is a WCMY with C=M=Y=26 minutes. The W image was made from the CMY images.

Galaxy NGC 3294 in the constellation Leo Minor. This small galaxy is 2.7 by 1.2 arc minutes in size. It has a magnitude of 11.7. This is a good visual target for a 10 inch scope under dark skies. Higher power and larger scopes may reveal its spiral structure. This image is a LRGB taken with a C14 and a ST237 CCD from Houston Texas on 3/11/00. L=45 minutes, R=G=B=10 minutes.

NGC7339(left galaxy) and NGC7332 in the constellation Pegasus. These small galaxies form an intresting pair. NGC7332 is an E7 (elliptical) type galaxy and is about 2 arcminutes in size. At magnitude 12 a large amateur size scope and dark skies will be necessay for a view visually. It's companion, NGC7339, is an SO(spiral) type that is seen nearly edge on from our perspective. This is a WCMY taken with a C14 and a CCD ST6 on 09/16/99 from Houston, Texas. The white(W) image is a 30 minute exposure at f/11 and the CMY are each 30 minute exposures taken at f/7.

NCG4490 and NGC4485. NGC4490( bottom) is commonly called the cocoon galaxy because of it's pear shaped appearance. Located in the constellation of Canes Vanatica, this galaxy is classified as an Sc type and is magnitude 10.1. It is 5 by 2 arcminutes in size and its companion lies 3 arcminutes to it's north. This image is a WCMY taken on 3/19/99 from Houston, Texas with a C14 operating at f/7 and a ST6 CCD. The exposure times are W=C=M=Y=20 minutes.

NGC1421 in the constellation Eridanus. This edge on spiral galaxy is a Sb spiral and is 3 by .6 arcminutes in size. It has a total magnitude of 12.0 and is located at 3h 40 min and -13.6 degrees declination. This image was taken with a C14 at f/7 and a ST6 CCD on 12/29/1998 from Houston texas. This is a WCMY image with exposures of C=M=Y=15 minutes. The "W" image was made from the C & M & 2Y images for a total exposure of 60 min.

Galaxy NGC7541 and supernova 1998dh. NGC7541 is a small SB spiral galaxy in the constellation Pisces. It is magnitude 12.6 and is 2.7 arcminutes in length. This galaxy is currently home to supernova 1998dh. This supernovae was discoverd on July 20 at Lick Observatory and is currenly at about magnitude 16. The supernova is the blue star located at the western ( right ) end of the galaxy. This is a WCMY image taken with a C14 at f/7 from Houston, Texas on 10/26/98 using a ST6 CCD. W=25min, C=M=Y= 32min.

NGC4567/68 in the constellation of Virgo. NGC4568 is the larger of these two galaxies that appear to be colliding. NGC4568 is about 3.5 arc minutes long and is magnitude 11.9. Its companion NGC4567 is about 2.5 arc minutes and is magnitude 12.0. These galaxies were imaged 04/21/98 with a C14 @ f/7. This is a WCMY of 40 min W, and 20 min. each C,M and Y.

NGC4302 and NGC4298 in the constellation Coma Bernices. NGC4302 is a thin edge-on galaxy with a pronounced equatorial dust lane. It is magnitude 12.9 and is about 5 arc minutes long. It's companion is NGC4298 which is a Sc type spiral and is magnitude 11.9. It is about 3 arc minutes in diameter. These two galaxies make a fine site in LARGE amateur size telescopes under clear and dark skies. This image is a WCMY image of 25min W, and 20min each CMY. This image was taken on 04/20/98 with a C14 at f/7 and a ST6 CCD from Houston, Texas.

NGC7331...Sb type Spiral galaxy in the constellation Pegasus. NGC7331 is oriented about 20 degrees from edge on as seen from earth and contains the equivalent of about 140 billion solar masses. Located about 50 million light years from earth, NGC7331 has an apparent diameter of about 10 arcminutes. At magnitude 10, it makes a fine object to observe with amateur size telescopes under a dark sky. Galaxy group Stephan's Quintet is located about 1/2 degree SSW. Taken 08/30/97 with a 32 inch newtonian from Danciger, Texas. A ST6 CCD was used at the f/4 prime focus. This is a 12.5 minute exposure made from 30 second integrations.

NGC 253 is located in the constellation Sculpter and is the brightest member of the Sculpter group. It is relatively near to the Milky Way, only 8 million light years away. It's proximity to the Milky Way results in it's large apparent size of 25 arcminutes and it's bright magnitude if 7.5. This is one of the finest galaxies to observe in a modest telescope and is best observed at the more southerly latitudes since it resides at a declination 25 degress South. This exposure was made with a C8 @ f/ 6.3 for 10 minutes at Danciger Texas. This image is made from 20 integrations of 30 second images with a ST6 CCD.

NGC 7741...this alternative representation of this barbed spiral galaxy is called a "surface plot". The surface plot can aid in picking out features in an image which may not be obvious in a standard reprsentation. The relatively faint surface brightness of 7741 required a 82 minute exposure at my city imaging site....C14 @f/7 and a ST6 CCD on 9/25/97

Galaxy group NGC 325, 327, 329 and MCG-1-3-45 in the constellation Cetus. These rather faint galaxies were imaged 11/03/97 from Houston Texas with a C14 @ f/7 for 40 minutes with a ST6 CCD. NGC 325 is listed as magnitude 16.

NGC 908 in the constellation Cetus. This is a Sc type spiral of magnitude 11.1. Burnham's Celestial Handbook list this galaxy as 4.0 by 1.3 arc minutes but it appears to be larger in this field which is 11 by 8 arc minutes. This is a 40 minute exposure @ f/7 with a C14 and a ST6 CCD.

NGC 1365...SB type spiral in the constellation Fornax. NGC 1365 is one of the most luminous of all known barbed spirals with an absolute magnitude of -20. With a declination of -36 degrees it is not well placed for many amatures in the USA. This image was taken from Danciger, Texas with a C8 @ f/3.3 and a ST5 CCD for 35 minutes on 11/29/97.

NGC 1097... SBb type spiral in the constellation of Fornax. NGC 1097 is listed in Burnham's as 9 x 5.5 arc minutes in size with an apparent magnitude of 10.6. NGC 1097 was imaged with a C8 @ f/3.3 from Danciger Texas for 32 minutes with a ST5 on 11/29/97.

NGC 5248...06/01/97...C14@f/7...40min...Houston, Tx

NGC 5371...05/28/97...C14@f/7...75min...Houston, Tx.

NGC 5170...5/04/97...C14...@f/7...70min...Houston ,Tx.

NGC 3631...4/14/97...C14...@f/7...67min...Houston,Tx



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