More Images of the Milkyway

The Open Cluster NGC 457 in Cassiopeiae. This cluster is about 10 arc minutes in diameter and contains about 100 stars brighter than 13th magnitude. The brightest member of the cluster is the spectral class MO red supergiant with a luminosity of about 10,000 times that of the sun. It is not clear that the brightest star ( yellow ) in the image ( Phi Cassiopeiae spectral class FO ) is a member of this cluster. The actual diameter of this cluster is about 30 light years and has many young blue stars of spectral class A and B. This image was made with an 8 inch f/4 newtonian and a ST237 CCD on 10-01-01 from Houston Texas. L=R=G=B=72 seconds.

L/RGB image of the Bug Nebula (NGC6302). A planetary nebula in Scorpius, made from images taken by Al Kelly and Ed Grafton on 7/20/01 with an SBIG ST-9E and 32" f4 Newtonian from Danciger, Texas. Eight 60-second subexposures and one 240-second subexposure in white (unfiltered except for an IR blocker), two 120-second subexposures in red, two 120-second subexposures in green, and two 120-second subexposures in blue were processed in AIP4WIN.

L/RGB image of globular cluster M2. Made from images taken by Al Kelly and Ed Grafton on 7/20/01 with an SBIG ST-9E and 32" f4 Newtonian from Danciger, Texas. Nine 5-second subexposures in red, ten 5-second subexposures in green, and twelve 5-second subexposures in blue were processed in AIP4WIN.

The Open Cluster M11( "Wild Duck Cluster" ) in the Constellation Scutum. M11 was discovered in 1681 by Gottfried Kirch. It is a very rich open cluster containing at least 500 stars down to magnitude 14. If one was in the center of the cluster, the night sky would be filled with hundreds of stars that were at least 1st magnitude, many of which would be several times brighter than Sirius. It's total mass is about 2900 suns, many are red and blue giants, and is about 5500 light years from Earth. This image of M11 was taken with a C14 and a ST237 CCD from Houston Texas on 8/7/00. The image is an LRGB with the Luminance channel constructed from the RGB images. The exposures times are R=G=B=100 seconds.

Star R in the constellation Lepus. This is one of the reddest stars in the sky. It is a long period variable and has the common name Hinds "Crimson Star". It's magnitude has a period of about 432 days and varies in magnitude from brighter than 7 to fainter than 9. Observation of this star brings comments that it resembles a glowing coal, a ruby or is an illuminated drop of blood. The star is located at RA 4:58 and Dec. of S14:53. Visual observation of this star in an amateur size telescope should reveal its red color well. This image was taken with a C14 and a ST237 CCD on 3/8/01 from Houston, Texas. Exposure times were R=G=B= .8 seconds.

Open Cluster M37 in the Constellation Auriga. This cluster was first observed by Messier in 1764. It contains about 150 stars and is about 25 light years in diameter. M37 contains a number of red giant stars, the brightest being near the center of the cluster. Its liminocity is about that of 2500 suns. This image is an RGB taken with a 120mm refractor at f/4 and a st237 ccd from Danciger Texas on 4/8/00. R=G=B= 100 seconds.

The Open Cluster NGC 2506 in the Constellation Monoceros. This small cluster is about 10 arcminutes in size. It contains about 75 stars to about magnitude 11. For an open cluster, 2506 is relatively compact. This image was made with a C14 @ f/3.8 with a ST237 CCD form Houston Texas on 3/18/00. The LRGB exposures

The Panetary Nebula NGC 2438 in the Constellation Pupis. This nebula has the curious feature of being enbedded in the open cluster M46. Actually it's presence is only an illusion as it about 300 light years from the cluster. NGC 2438 is 65 arc seconds in diameter and can be seen in a 4 inch scope under dark skies. Thsi shot was taken wuth a C14 @ f/3.8 and a ST237 CCD on 2/28/00 from Houston, Texas. The image is a LRGB with L=15 minutes and R=G=B=10 minutes.

Globular Cluster M53 in the Constellation Coma Bernices. M53 is magnitude 8.7 with a luminosity of about 200,000 suns and is about 64,000 light years from Earth. The individual stars in M53 are 11 magnitude and fainter. In a moderate size amateur telescope this cluster can be fully resolved into its thousands of stars. The cluster has a maximum diameter of 14 arcminutes but will appear about 4 arcminutes across in amateur telescopes. This image is a LRGB with exposures of 5 minutes L; R=G=B=3 minutes. Taken with a C14 @ f/3.8 and a ST237 CCD from Houston, Texas on 04/27/00.

The Double Cluster in Perseus. This beautiful cluster should be on everyones list to observe. Any small scope or even large binoculars will show this cluster. With scopes of 4 inches or more the clusters individual star colors can be seen as red blue and white gems. This image is a mosiac of two images taken with a 120mm refractor at f/5 and a ST237 CCD. The exposures times are L=R=G=B=120 seconds

The Open Cluster NGC2158 in the constellation Gemini. It is located in the same low power field of view with the much larger and brighter open cluster M35. The total integrated magnitude is 11 with the individual stars being about magnitude 16. NGC2158 is very dense for an open cluster and seems to be almost like a globular cluster. It is one of the most remote open clusters being at a distance of 16,000 light years. In a 6 inch scope under a dark sky M35 and NGC2158 make an interesting view in the same low power field. This LRGB image of NGC2158 was taken from Houston, Texas with a 120mm refractor at 500mm focal length with a ST237 CCD. The exposure times are L=R=G=B=50 seconds.

The Globular Cluster M15 in the Constellation Pegasus. This globular was discovered by Maraldi in 1746 and is one of the finest globulars in the sky. The core is very dense but may be nearly resolved in a six inch scope under favorable conditions. M15 is about 42,000 light years from earth and has a luminosity of about 200,000 suns. It is magnitude 6 and about 10 arcminutes in size. This image of M15 was taken on 09/26/00 from Houston, Texas with a C14 and a ST237 CCD. It is an LRGB image of R=G=B=10 minutes. The L channel was constructed from the R&G images.

M2 in the Constellation Aquarius. This globular was first seen by Maraldi in 1746 and then rediscovered my Messier in 1760. M2 can be completly resolved with an 8 inch scope under dark skies at moderate power and is about 11 arcminutes in size. It is about 50,000 light years from Earth and has a diameter of 150 light years. It is composed of about 100,000 stars that are magnitude 14 and 15. This image of M2 was taken from Houston, Texas on 09/26/00 with a C14 scope and a ST237 CCD. It is an LRGB image of R=G=B=10 minutes. The L channel was constructed form the R&G images.

The Globular Cluster M10. At 7th magnitude, m10 is an intresting globular in the constellation Ophiuchus. M10 is about 12 arcminutes in diameter and may be resolved woth an 8 inch scope. H. Shapley in 1933 derived the distance from Earth, 33,000 light years, but more recent estimates place it at about 16,000-22,000 light years. It is receding from us at a speed of 43 miles per second. This image was taken with a C14 at f/3.6 and a ST237 CCD on 7/24/00 from Houston, Texas. R=G=B=10 minutes.

The Globular Cluster M12 in the Constellation Ophiuchus. M12 was discovered by Messier in 1764. It has a somewhat loser structure than many globulars showing little central condensation and can easily be resolved by amateur size scopes. The red giant stars are easily picked recognizeable in this image. M12 is about 20,000 light years from Earth and approaching at a velocity of 10 miles per second. This image was taken from Houston. Texas on 6/30/00 with a ST237 CCD and a C14 @ f/3.6. The image is a LRGB with W=R=G=B=10 minutes.

The Globular Cluster M3 in the Constellation Canes Venatici. A very bright globular cluster that can easily be resolved with a 6 inch telescope. M3 is about 40,000 light years from earth and has a diameter of 220 light years. It has a luninosity of 160,000 suns and a mass of about 140,000 suns. M3 is one of the oldest globulars in the Milkyway with an estimated age of 10 billion years. This image of M3 was taken with a C14 @ f/3.8 and a ST237 CCD on 3/27/00 from Houston, Texas. This is a LRGB image with L=6 minutes, R=G=B=3 minutes.

NGC2392, the Eskimo nebula. This planetary is called the "Eskimo" from its resemblance of a parka-like hooded face. The Eskimo is believed to be about 3000 light years from earth and has a diameter of .6 light years. The central star is about 40 times as bright as our sun. The bluish-green tint is due to strong emissions at 5007 and 4959 angstroms, the doubly ionized oxygen emission lines. This exposure is a WRGB of 11 minutes Monochrome, 7 minutes red, 15 minutes green and 21 minutes blue. A ST5 and a C14 operating @ f/7 was used to capture this image on 1/09/98.

NGC3242..."The Ghost Of Jupiter". Located in the constellation Hydra, this planetary nebula exhibits an elliptical inner ring that measures about 18 arc seconds. This ring is surrounded by an outer shell 40 arc-seconds across. The central star is a hot blue dwarf with a surface temperature of 60,000 deg. K. It is estimated to be at a distance of 3300 light years and have a diameter of .6 light years. This image an WRGB of 7 minutes R, 14 minutes G, and 21 minutes B. The green image was used as the luminance channel. Taken on 02/28/98 with a ST5 and a C14 @ f/7.

The Horse head nebula. This is a 40 minute ezposure taken with a St6 and a C14 @ f/7.

NGC 2419 in the constellation Lynx. This is the most remote globular cluster in the Milky Way galaxy and is located 180,000 light years from the center of the Milky way. The individual stars of this cluster average magnitude 19.2 making it difficult to resolve visually. The globular has a core diameter of 2 arc minutes and has a total magnitude 10.9 This image of NGC 2419 is an MRGB of 10 minutes red, 20 minutes green and 30 minutes blue. The M channel was made from the combined RGB's. Taken with a C14 and a ST6 from Houston Texas on 01/26/98.

This tiny planetary nebula PK061+08.1 is 16 arcseconds in diameter. Iimaged with a C14 and a ST6 for 40 min.

NGC2392, the Eskimo nebula. This planetary is called the "Eskimo" from its resemblance of a parka-like hooded face. The Eskimo is believed to be about 3000 light years from earth and has a diameter of .6 light years. The central star is about 40 times as bright as our sun. The bluish-green tint is due to strong emissions at 5007 and 4959 angstroms, the doubly ionized oxygen emission lines. This exposure is a LRGB of with L= 16 minutes, R=G=B=4 minutes. A ST237 and a C14 operating @ f/5.5 was used to capture this image on 2/5/00.

.M2 in the constellation Aquarius. This globular was first seen by Maraldi in 1746 and then rediscovered my Messier in 1760. M2 can be completly resolved with an 8 inch scope under dark skies at moderate power and is about 11 arcminutes in size. It is about 50,000 light years from Earth and has a diameter of 150 light years. It is composed of about 100,000 stars that are magnitude 14 and 15. This image of M2 was taken from Houston Texas on 09/03/99 with a C14 scope and a ST6 CCD. It is a WCMY image of W=5 minutes and C=M=Y=3 minutes

The globular cluster M15 in the constellation Pegasus. This globular was discovered by Maraldi in 1746 and is one of the finest globulars in the sky. The core is very dense but may be nearly resolved in a six inch scope under favorable conditions. M15 is about 42,000 light years from earth and has a luminosity of about 200,000 suns. It is magnitude 6 and about 10 arcminutes in size. This image of M15 was taken on 08/30/99 from Houston, Texas with a C14 and a ST6 CCD. It is a WCMY image of W=5 minutes and C=M=Y=8 minutes.

M16 in the constellation Serpens. Called the Eagle nebula, M16 is a large star cluster immersed in a large nebula. The most interesting aspect of this object are the dark projections of dust clouds which thrust through the nebula. First observed in 1746 by Swiss astronomer P. Cheseaux, M16 is a fine object in amateur telescopes. It is about 30 arcminutes in size and rather bright at magnitude 6. This image of M16 is a WCMY taken through a 6" f/4 scope with a ST6 CCD. Taken from Friendswood, Texas on 8/6/99. W=10 minutes, C=Y=M=7 minutes.

Hubble's Variable Nebula, NGC2261. This comet like nebula has the strange characteristic of changing appearance over time. This is believed to be caused by dust clouds moving in front of the nearby illuminating star and casting shadows on the nebula. This nebula also has the distinction of being the first object to be photographed with the 200 inch Hale telescope at the Palomar Observatory. This is a WCMY image made from exposures of 20 minutes C, 20 minutes M, and 20 minutes Y. The W image was made from a composite of the CMY images. This image was made on 1/15/99 with a C14 @ f/7 and a ST6 CCD from Houston Texas.

M1, the Crab nebula. This supernova remenant was born in 1054 AD and is being illumnated by the pulsar resulting from the supernova explosion. This nebula is still expanding today at the rate of 600 miles per second and is a very strong radio source. This is a WCMY image made from exposures of 15 minutes cyan, 15 minutes magenta and 15 minutes yellow. The W image is a composite of the filtered images. Taken on 12/18/98 with a C14 @ f/7 and a ST6 CCD from Houston, Texas.

Open cluster NGC2158 in the constellation Gemini. This open cluster is located about 1/2 degree SW of M35. It is a very distant cluster located about 16,000 light years from earth. NGG2158 is rather small in apparent size due to its distance, only 4 arc minutes, and the individual stars are about 16th magnitude making it difficult to resolve visually. This is a RGB of 5 minutes red, 10 green, and 15 minutes blue. This image was taken with a C14 @ f/7 and a ST6 CCD on 02/02/98. This image has increased saturation applied to make the star colors more apparent.

Globular Cluster M53 in the constellation Coma Bernices. M53 is magnitude 8.7 with a luminosity of about 200,000 suns and is about 64,000 light years from Earth. The individual stars in M53 are 11 magnitude and fainter. In a moderate size amateur telescope this cluster can be fully resolved into its thousands of stars. The cluster has a maximum diameter of 14 arcminutes but will appear about 4 arcminutes across in amateur telescopes. This image is a WRGB with exposures of 7 minutes R, 14 min. G, and 21 min. B. The W component was made from the RGB images. Taken with a C14 @ f/7 and a ST6 CCD from Houston, Texas on 04/03/98.

M79. This globular cluster, in the constellation Lepus, contains the equivelent of 90,000 suns.

 This image of M16 is a 40 min exposure taken with a C14 @ f/11

M20 taken with a C14 @f/7....10min...two images which were pasted together.

NGC246 taken 11/96...C14@ f7...72min. This is a much longer exposure than is usually seen with CCD cameras. NGC246 has a somewhat low surface brightness and was imaged from within the city limits of Houston, Texas. This extended exposure demonstrates that even faint objects can be imaged from heavily light polluted areas with CCD cameras......if the exposures are long.

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